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Including "Mobile Computing", "WiFi Communication", "Secure Computing"

1. Buffer-aided Relay Selection with Reduced Packet delay in cooprative network .
Project Code : JN1601                    Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract—Applying data buffers at relay nodes significantly improves the outage performance in relay networks, but the performance gain is often at the price of long packet delaysIn this paper, a novel relay selection scheme with significantly

reduced packet delay is proposed. The outage probability and average packet delay of the proposed scheme under different channel scenarios are analyzed. Simulation results are also given to verify the analysis. The analytical and simulation results show that, compared with non-buffer-aided relay selection schemes, the proposed scheme has not only significant gain in outage performance but also similar average packet delay when the channel SNR is high enough, making it an attractive scheme

in practice.

2. Secure communication problem for client server analysis algorithm & Evaluation.
Project Code : JN1602                       Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract —Now a days so many people are connected to the internet to access the different resources of their use and different companies are using distributed environment to provide their services to the customers. All these activities affect the economy of the country or world. So there is a need of more secure distributed environment in which all transaction and operations can be complete successfully in a secure way. In distributed System environment it is very important to provide service at any time ,any where to the customers, this require proper time management of all computing and networking resources, resource allocation on time and their proper utilization. In distributed environment security is primary concern. In this paper an analysis of different security issues related to data, physical security, network security , possible distributed system attacks, has been made.

3.  An Enhanced Available Bandwidth Estimation Technique for an End-to-End Network Path.
Project Code : JN1603                          Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract—This paper presents a unique probing scheme, a rate adjustment algorithm, and a modified excursion detection algorithm (EDA) for estimating the available bandwidth (ABW) of an end-to-end network path more accurately and less intrusively. The proposed algorithm is based on the well known concept of

self-induced congestion and it features a unique probing train structure in which there is a region where packets are sampled more frequently than in other regions. This high-density region enables our algorithm to find the turning point more accurately. When the dynamic ABW is outside of this region, we readjust the

lower rate and upper rate of the packet stream to fit the dynamic ABW into that region.We appropriately adjust the range between the lower rate and the upper rate using spread factors, which enables us to keep the number of packets low and we are thus able to measure the ABW less intrusively. Finally, to detect the ABW

from the one-way queuing delay, we present a modified EDA from PathChirps’ original EDA to better deal with sudden increase and decrease in queuing delays due to cross traffic burstiness. For the experiments, an Android OS-based device was used to measure the ABW over a commercial 4G/LTE mobile network of a Japanese mobile operator, as well as real testbed measurements were conducted over fixed and WLAN network. Simulations and experimental results show that our algorithm can achieve ABW estimations in real time and outperforms other stat-of-the-art

measurement algorithms in terms of accuracy, intrusiveness, and convergence time.

4. Automatic Test and debugging Packet Generation.
Project Code : JN1604                        Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract—Networks are getting larger and more complex, yet administrators rely on rudimentary tools such as ping and traceroute  to debug problems. We propose an automated and systematic approach for testing and debugging networks called

“Automatic Test Packet Generation” (ATPG). ATPG reads router configurations and generates a device-independent model. The model is used to generate a minimum set of test packets to (minimally) exercise every link in the network or (maximally) exercise every rule in the network. Test packets are sent periodically, and detected failures trigger a separate mechanism to localize the fault. ATPG can detect both functional (e.g., incorrect firewall rule) and performance problems (e.g., congested queue). ATPG complements but goes beyond earlier work in static checking (which cannot detect liveness or performance faults) or fault localization (which only localize faults given liveness results). We describe our prototype ATPG implementation and results on two real-world data sets: Stanford University’s backbone network and

Internet2. We find that a small number of test packets suffices to test all rules in these networks: For example, 4000 packets can cover all rules in Stanford backbone network, while 54 are enough to cover all links. Sending 4000 test packets 10 times per second consumes less than 1% of link capacity. ATPG code and the data sets are publicly available.

5. A semantic tool for firewall optimization.
Project Code : JN1605           Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Firewalls have been widely deployed on the Internet for securing private networks. A firewall checks each incoming or outgoing packet to decide whether to accept or discard the packet based on its policy. Optimizing firewall policies is crucial for improving network performance. Prior work on firewall optimization focuses on either intrafirewall or interfirewall optimization within one administrative domain where the privacy of firewall policies is not a concern. This paper explores interfirewall optimization across administrative domains for the first time. The key technical challenge is that firewall policies cannot be shared across domains because a firewall policy contains confidential information and even potential security holes, which can be exploited by attackers. In this paper, we propose the first cross-domain privacy-preserving cooperative firewall policy optimization protocol. Specifically, for any two adjacent firewalls belonging to two different administrative domains, our protocol can identify in each firewall the rules that can be removed because of the other firewall. The optimization process involves cooperative computation between the two firewalls without any party disclosing its policy to the other. We implemented our protocol and conducted extensive experiments. The results on real firewall policies show that our protocol can remove as many as 49% of the rules in a firewall, whereas the average is 19.4%. The communication cost is less than a few hundred kilobytes. Our protocol incurs no extra online packet processing overhead, and the offline processing time is less than a few hundred seconds.

6. Enhanced security in online banking system.
Project Code : JN1606                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract— In this era due to unbelievable development in internet, various online attacks has been increased. From all such attacks most popular attack is phishing. This attacks are done for extracting confidential information such as banking information, passwords from unsuspecting victims for fraud purposes. Confidential data can’t be directly uploaded on website since it is risky. Here in this paper data is encrypted in video and visual cryptography for login purpose in our online database system for providing more security .

7. Protecting Location Privacy in Sensor Networks against a Global Eavesdropper.
Project Code : JN1607                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

While many protocols for sensor network security provide confidentiality for the content of messages, contextual information usually remains exposed. Such information can be critical to the mission of the sensor network, such as the location of a target object in a monitoring application, and it is often Important to protect this information as well as message content. There have been several recent studies on providing location privacy in sensor networks. We first argue that a strong adversary model, the global eavesdropper, is often realistic in practice and can defeat existing techniques. We then formalize the location privacy issues under this strong adversary model and show how much communication overhead is needed for achieving a given level of privacy. We also propose two techniques that prevent the leakage of location information: periodic collection and source simulation. Periodic collection provides a high level of location privacy, while source simulation provides trade-offs between privacy, communication cost, and latency. Through analysis and simulation, we demonstrate that the proposed techniques are efficient and effective in protecting location information from the attacker.

8. Developing Route Optimization-Based PMIPv6 testbed for reliable packet transmission.
Project Code : JN1608                   Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) allows a mobile node to communicate directly to its peers while changing the currently used IP address. This mode of operation is called route optimization (RO). In the RO process, the peer node learns a binding between the home address and its current temporary care-of-address. Many schemes have been proposed to support RO in PMIPv6. However, these schemes do not consider the out-of-sequence problem, which may happen between the existing path and the newly established RO path. In this paper, we propose a scheme to solve the out-of-sequence problem with low cost. In our scheme, we use the additional packet sequence number and the time information when the problem occurs. We then run experiments on a reliable packet transmission (RPT) laboratory testbed to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and compare it with the well-known RO-supported PMIPv6 and the out-of-sequence time period scheme. The experimental results show that for most of the cases, our proposed scheme guarantees RPT by preventing the out-of-sequence problem.

9. Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network.
Project Code : JN1609                       Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract : 
In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility, communication cost, and average query delay.

10. Firecol: A Collaborative Protection Network For The Detection Of Flooding  Ddos Attacks.
Project Code : JN1610                       Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks remain a major security problem, the mitigation of which is very hard especially when it comes to highly distributed botnet-based attacks. The early discovery of these attacks, although challenging, is necessary to protect end-users as well as the expensive network infrastructure resources. Here, we address the problem of DDoS attacks and present the theoretical foundation, architecture, and algorithms of FireCol. The core of FireCol is composed of intrusion prevention systems (IPSs) located at the Internet service providers (ISPs) level. The IPSs form virtual protection rings around the hosts to defend and collaborate by exchanging selected traffic information. The evaluation of FireCol using extensive simulations and a real dataset is presented, showing FireCol effectiveness and low overhead, as well as its support for incremental deployment in real networks.

11. Distributed Packet Buffers for High-Bandwidth Switches and Routers.
Project Code : JN1611                       Year : 2016 (IEEE)

High-speed routers rely on well-designed packet buffers that support multiple queues, provide large capacity and short response times. Some researchers suggested combined SRAM/DRAM hierarchical buffer architectures to meet these challenges. However, these architectures suffer from either large SRAM requirement or high time-complexity in the memory management. In this paper, we present scalable, efficient, and novel distributed packet buffer architecture. 
Two fundamental issues need to be addressed to make this architecture feasible: 1) how to minimize the overhead of an individual packet buffer; and 2) how to design scalable packet buffers using independent buffer subsystems. We address these issues by first designing an efficient compact buffer that reduces the SRAM size requirement by (k - 1)/k. Then, we introduce a feasible way of coordinating multiple subsystems with a load-balancing algorithm that maximizes the overall system performance.

12. Catching Packet Droppers and Modifiers in Wireless Sensor Networks.
Project Code : JN1612                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Packet dropping and modification are common attacks that can be launched by an adversary to disrupt communication in wireless multihop sensor networks. Many schemes have been proposed to mitigate or tolerate such attacks, but very few can effectively and efficiently identify the intruders. To address this problem, we propose a simple yet effective scheme, which can identify misbehaving forwarders that drop or modify packets. Extensive analysis and simulations have been conducted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme.

13. Energy Packet Networks With Energy Harvesting.
Project Code : JN1613                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

ABSTRACT :  We investigate the cooperation among energy prosumers (unied energy provider and consumer) through the energy packet network (EPN) paradigm, which represents both the ow of work that requires energy, and the ow of energy itself, in terms of discrete units. This paper details a stochastic model of EPNs, which is inspired from a branch of queuing theory called G-networks. The model allows us to

compute the equilibrium state of a system that includes energy storage units, energy transmission networks, and energy consumers, together with the intermittent energy sources. The model is then used to show how the ow of work and energy in the system can be optimized for certain utility functions that consider both the needs of the consumers, and the desire to maintain some reserve energy for potential future needs.

14. A Trigger Identification Service for Defending Reactive Jammers in Wireless Sensor Network.
Project Code : JN1614                        Year : 2016 (IEEE)

ABSTRACT:  During the last decade, Reactive Jamming Attack has emerged as a great security threat to wireless sensor networks, due to its mass destruction to legitimate sensor communications and difficulty to be disclosed and defended. Considering the specific characteristics of reactive jammer nodes, a new scheme to deactivate them by efficiently identifying all trigger nodes, whose transmissions invoke the jammer nodes, has been proposed and developed. Such a trigger-identification procedure can work as an application-layer service and benefit many existing reactive-jamming defending schemes. In this paper, on the one hand, we leverage several optimization problems to provide a complete trigger-identification service framework for unreliable wireless sensor networks. On the other hand, we provide an improved algorithm with regard to two sophisticated jamming models, in order to enhance its robustness for various network scenarios. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are included to validate the performance of this framework.

15. Footprint: Detecting Sybil Attacks in Urban Vehicular Networks.
Project Code : JN1615                 Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract : In urban vehicular networks, where privacy, especially the location privacy of  anonymous vehicles is highly concerned, anonymous verification of vehicles is indispensable. Consequently, an attacker who succeeds in forging multiple hostile identifies can easily launch a Sybil attack, gaining a disproportionately large influence. In this paper, we propose a novel Sybil attack detection mechanism, Footprint, using the trajectories of vehicles for identification while still preserving their location privacy. More specifically, when a vehicle approaches a road-side unit (RSU), it actively demands an authorized message from the RSU as the proof of the appearance time at this RSU. We design a location-hidden authorized message generation   scheme for two objectives: first, RSU signatures on messages are signer ambiguous so that the RSU location information is concealed from the resulted authorized message; second, two  authorized messages signed by the same RSU within the same given period of time (temporarily linkable) are recognizable so that they can be used for identification. With the temporal limitation on the likability of two authorized messages, authorized messages used for long-term identification are prohibited. With this scheme, vehicles can generate a location-hidden trajectory for location-privacy-preserved identification by collecting a consecutive series of authorized   messages. Utilizing social relationship among trajectories according to the similarity definition of two trajectories, Footprint can recognize and therefore dismiss “communities” of Sybil trajectories. Rigorous security analysis and extensive trace-driven simulations demonstrate the efficacy of Footprint.

16. Adaptive Opportunistic Routing for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.
Project Code : JN1616                        Year : 2016 (IEEE)

A distributed adaptive opportunistic routing scheme for multihop wireless ad hoc networks is proposed. The proposed scheme utilizes a reinforcement learning framework to opportunistically route the packets even in the absence of reliable knowledge about channel statistics and network model. This scheme is shown to be optimal with respect to an expected average per-packet reward criterion. The proposed routing scheme jointly addresses the issues of learning and routing in an opportunistic context, where the network structure is characterized by the transmission success probabilities. In particular, this learning framework leads to a stochastic routing scheme that optimally “explores” and “exploits” the opportunities in the network.

17. Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNs.
Project Code : JN1617                        Year : 2016 (IEEE)

The multihop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks, and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multihop routing, we have designed and implemented TARF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TARF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TARF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. Further, we have implemented a low-overhead TARF module in TinyOS; as demonstrated, this implementation can be incorporated into existing routing protocols with the least effort. Based on TARF, we also demonstrated a proof-of-concept mobile target detection application that functions well against an antidetection mechanism.

18. MeasuRouting: A Framework for Routing Assisted Traffic Monitoring.
Project Code : JN1618                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Monitoring transit traffic at one or more points in a network is of interest to network operators for reasons of traffic accounting, debugging or troubleshooting, forensics, and traffic engineering. Previous research in the area has focused on deriving a placement of monitors across the network toward the end of maximizing the monitoring utility of the network operator for a given traffic routing. However, both traffic characteristics and measurement objectives can dynamically change over time, rendering a previously optimal placement of monitors suboptimal. It is not feasible to dynamically redeploy/reconfigure measurement infrastructure to cater to such evolving measurement requirements. We address this problem by strategically routing traffic subpopulations over fixed monitors. We refer to this approach as MeasuRouting. The main challenge for MeasuRouting is to work within the constraints of existing intradomain traffic engineering operations that are geared for efficiently utilizing bandwidth resources, or meeting quality-of-service (QoS) constraints, or both. A fundamental feature of intradomain routing, which makesMeasuRouting feasible, is that intradomain routing is often specified
for aggregate flows. MeasuRouting can therefore differentially route components of an aggregate flow while ensuring that the aggregate placement is compliant to original traffic engineering objectives. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for MeasuRouting. Furthermore, as proofs of concept, we present synthetic and practical monitoring applications to showcase the utility enhancement achieved with MeasuRouting

19. On Optimizing Overlay Topologies for Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks.
Project Code : JN1619                       Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing networks are popular in the mass market. As the peers participating in unstructured networks interconnect randomly, they rely on flooding query messages to discover objects of interest and thus introduce remarkable network traffic. Empirical measurement studies indicate that the peers in P2P networks have similar preferences, and have recently proposed unstructured P2P networks that organize participating peers by exploiting their similarity. The resultant networks may not perform searches efficiently and effectively because existing overlay topology construction algorithms often create unstructured P2P networks without performance guarantees.
Thus, we propose a novel overlay formation algorithm for unstructured P2P networks. Based on the file sharing pattern exhibiting the power-law property, our proposal is unique in that it poses rigorous performance guarantees. Theoretical performance results conclude that in a constant probability, 1) searching an object in our proposed network efficiently takes hops (where c is a small constant), and 2) the search progressively and effectively exploits the similarity of peers. In addition, the success ratio of discovering an object approximates 100 percent. We validate our theoretical analysis and compare our proposal to competing algorithms in simulations. Based on the simulation results, our proposal clearly outperforms the competing algorithms in terms of 1) the hop count of routing a query message, 2) the successful ratio of resolving a query, 3) the number of messages required for resolving a query, and 4) the message overhead for maintaining and formatting the overlay.

20. MIMO-NOMA Design for Small Packet transmission in the internet of things.
Project Code : JN1620                    Year : 2016 (IEEE)

ABSTRACT A feature of the Internet of Things (IoT) is that some users in the system need to be served quickly for small packet transmission. To address this requirement, a new multiple-input multiple-output non-orthogonal multiple access (MIMO-NOMA) scheme is designed in this paper, where one user is served with its quality of service requirement strictly met, and the other user is served opportunistically by using the

NOMA concept. The novelty of this new scheme is that it confronts the challenge that the existing MIMONOMA schemes rely on the assumption that users' channel conditions are different, a strong assumption which may not be valid in practice. The developed precoding and detection strategies can effectively create a signicant difference between the users' effective channel gains, and therefore, the potential of NOMA can be realized even if the users' original channel conditions are similar. Analytical and numerical results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed MIMO-NOMA scheme.

21. Privacy- and Integrity-Preserving Range Queries in Sensor Networks.
Project Code : JN1621                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)


The architecture of two-tiered sensor networks, where storage nodes serve as an intermediate tier between sensors and a sink for storing data and processing queries, has been widely adopted because of the benefits of power and storage saving for sensors as well as the efficiency of query processing. However, the importance of storage nodes also makes them attractive to attackers. In this paper, we propose SafeQ, a protocol that prevents attackers from gaining information from both sensor collected data and sink issued queries. SafeQ also allows a sink to detect compromised storage nodes when they misbehave. To preserve privacy, SafeQ uses a novel technique to encode both data and queries such that a storage node can correctly process encoded queries over encoded data without knowing their values. To preserve integrity, we propose two schemes—one using Merkle hash trees and another using a new data structure called neighborhood chains—to generate integrity verification information so that a sink can use this information to verify whether the result of a query contains exactly the data items that satisfy the query. To improve performance, we propose an optimization technique using Bloom filters to reduce the communication cost between sensors and storage nodes.

22. A Network Coding Equivalent Content Distribution Scheme for Efficient Peer-to-Peer Interactive VoD Streaming.
Project Code : JN1622                        Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Although random access operations are desirable for on-demand video streaming in peer-to-peer systems, they are difficult to efficiently achieve due to the asynchronous interactive behaviors of users and the dynamic nature of peers. In this paper, we propose a network coding equivalent content distribution (NCECD) scheme to efficiently handle interactive video-on-demand (VoD) operations in peer-to-peer systems. In NCECD, videos are divided into segments that are then further divided into blocks. These blocks are encoded into independent blocks that are distributed to different peers for local storage. With NCECD, a new client only needs to connect to a sufficient number of parent peers to be able to view the whole video and rarely needs to find new parents when performing random access operations. In most existing methods, a new client must search for parent peers containing specific segments; however, NCECD uses the properties of network coding to cache equivalent content in peers, so that one can pick any parent without additional searches. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme achieves low startup and jump searching delays and requires fewer server resources. In addition, we present the analysis of system parameters to achieve reasonable block loss rates for the proposed scheme.

23. Toward Reliable Data Delivery for Highly Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.
Project Code : JN1623

This paper addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner. Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. Driven by this issue, we propose an efficient Position-based Opportunistic Routing (POR) protocol which takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. In the case of communication hole, a Virtual Destination-based Void Handling (VDVH) scheme is further proposed to work together with POR. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that POR achieves excellent performance even under high node mobility with acceptable overhead and the new void handling scheme also works well.

24. Packet Loss Control Using Tokens at the Network Edge.
Project Code : JN1624                     Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Presently the Internet accommodates simultaneous audio, video, and data traffic. This requires the Internet to guarantee the packet loss which at its turn depends very much on congestion control. A series of protocols have been introduced to supplement the insufficient TCP mechanism controlling the network congestion. CSFQ was designed as an open-loop controller to provide the fair best effort service for supervising the per-flow bandwidth consumption and has become helpless when the P2P flows started to dominate the traffic of the Internet. Token-Based Congestion Control (TBCC) is based on a closed-loop congestion control principle, which restricts token resources consumed by an end-user and provides the fair best effort service with O(1) complexity. As Self-Verifying CSFQ and Re-feedback, it experiences a heavy load by policing inter-domain traffic for lack of trust. In this paper, Stable Token-Limited Congestion Control (STLCC) is introduced as new protocols which appends inter-domain congestion control to TBCC and make the congestion control system to be stable. STLCC is able to shape output and input traffic at the inter-domain link with O(1) complexity. STLCC produces a congestion index, pushes the packet loss to the network edge and improves the network performance. Finally, the simple version of STLCC is introduced. This version is deployable in the Internet without any IP protocols modifications and
preserves also the packet datagram.

25. RIHT: A Novel Hybrid IP Traceback Scheme.
Project Code : JN1625                    Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Because the Internet has been widely applied in various fields, more and more network security issues emerge and catch people’s attention. However, adversaries often hide themselves by spoofing their own IP addresses and then launch attacks.

For this reason, researchers have proposed a lot of traceback schemes to trace the source of these attacks. Some use only one packet in their packet logging schemes to achieve IP tracking. Others combine packetmarking with packet logging and therefore create hybrid IP traceback schemes demanding less storage but requiring a longer search. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid IP traceback scheme with efficient packet logging aiming to have a fixed storage requirement for each router (under 320 KB, according to CAIDA’s skitter data set) in packet logging without

the need to refresh the logged tracking information and to achieve zero false positive and false negative rates in attack-path reconstruction. In addition, we use a packet’s marking field to censor attack traffic on its upstream routers. Lastly, we simulate and analyze our scheme, in comparison with other related research, in the following aspects: storage requirement, computation, and accuracy.

26. BGP Churn Evolution: A Perspective from the Core.
Project Code : JN1626                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)


The scalability limitations of BGP have been a major concern lately. An important aspect of this issue is the rate of routing updates (churn) that BGP routers must process. This paper presents an analysis of the evolution of churn in four networks at the backbone of the Internet over a period of seven years and eight months, using BGP update traces from the RouteViews project. The churn rate varies widely over time and between networks. Instead of descriptive “black-box” statistical analysis, we take an exploratory data analysis approach attempting to understand the reasons behind major observed characteristics of the churn time series. We find that duplicate announcements are a major churn contributor, responsible for most large spikes. Remaining spikes are mostly caused by routing incidents that affect a large number of prefixes simultaneously. More long-term intense periods of churn, on the other hand, are caused by misconfigurations or other special events at or close to the monitored autonomous system (AS). After filtering pathologies and effects that are not related to the long-term evolution of churn, we analyze the remaining “baseline” churn and find that it is increasing at a rate that is similar to the growth of the number of ASs.

27. Latency Equalization as a New Network Service Primitive.
Project Code : JN1627                     Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Multiparty interactive network applications such as teleconferencing, network gaming, and online trading are gaining popularity. In addition to end-to-end latency bounds, these applications require that the delay difference among multiple clients of the service is minimized for a good interactive experience. We propose a Latency EQualization (LEQ) service, which equalizes the perceived latency for all clients participating in an interactive network application. To effectively implement the proposed LEQ service, network support is essential. The LEQ architecture uses a few routers in the network as hubs to redirect packets of interactive applications along paths with similar end-to-end delay. We first formulate the hub selection problem, prove its NP-hardness, and provide a greedy algorithm to solve it. Through extensive simulations, we show that our LEQ architecture significantly reduces delay difference under different optimization criteria that allow or do not allow compromising the per-user end-to-end delay. Our LEQ service is incrementally deployable in today’s networks, requiring just software modifications to edge routers. 

28. BloomCast: Efficient and Effective Full-Text Retrieval in Unstructured P2P Networks.
Project Code : JN1628                         Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Efficient and effective full-text retrieval in unstructured peer-to-peer networks remains a challenge in the research community. First, it is difficult, if not impossible, for unstructured P2P systems to effectively locate items with guaranteed recall. Second, existing schemes to improve search success rate often rely on replicating a large number of item replicas across the wide area network, incurring a large amount of communication and storage costs. In this paper, we propose BloomCast, an efficient and effective full-text retrieval scheme, in unstructured P2P networks. By leveraging a hybrid P2P protocol, BloomCast replicates the items uniformly at random across the P2P networks, achieving a guaranteed recall at a communication cost of  Þ, where N is the size of the network. Furthermore, by casting Bloom Filters instead of the raw documents across the network, BloomCast significantly reduces the communication and storage costs for replication. We demonstrate the power of BloomCast design through both mathematical proof and comprehensive simulations based on the query logs from a major commercial search engine and NIST TREC WT10G data collection. Results show that BloomCast achieves an average query recall of 91 percent, which outperforms the existing WP algorithm by 18 percent, while BloomCast greatly reduces the search latency for query processing by 57 percent

29. Detecting Spam Zombies by Monitoring Outgoing Messages.
Project Code : JN1629                       Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Compromised machines are one of the key security threats on the Internet; they are often used to launch various security attacks such as spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. Given that spamming provides a key economic incentive for attackers to recruit the large number of compromised machines, we focus on the detection of the compromised machines in a network that are involved in the spamming activities, commonly known as spam zombies. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates. Our evaluation studies based on a two-month email trace collected in a large U.S. campus network show that SPOT is an effective and efficient system in automatically detecting compromised machines in a network. In addition, we also compare the performance of SPOT with two other spam zombie detection algorithms based on the number and percentage of spam messages originated or forwarded by internal machines, respectively, and show that SPOT outperforms these two detection algorithms.

30. Design, Implementation, and Performance of a Load Balancer for SIP Server Clusters.
Project Code : JN1630                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)


This paper introduces several novel load-balancing algorithms for distributing Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) requests to a cluster of SIP servers. Our load balancer improves both throughput and response time versus a single node while exposing a single interface to external clients. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of our system using a cluster of Intel x86 machines running Linux. We compare our algorithms to several well-known approaches and present scalability results for up to 10 nodes. Our best algorithm, Transaction Least-Work-Left (TLWL), achieves its performance by integrating several features: knowledge of the SIP protocol, dynamic estimates of back-end server load, distinguishing transactions from calls, recognizing variability in call length, and exploiting differences in processing costs for different SIP transactions. By combining these features, our algorithm provides finer-grained load balancing than standard approaches, resulting in throughput improvements of up to 24% and response-time improvements of up to two orders of magnitude. We present a detailed analysis of occupancy to show how our algorithms significantly reduce response time.

31. Risk-Aware Mitigation for MANET Routing Attacks.
Project Code : JN1631                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) have been highly vulnerable to attacks due to the dynamic nature of its network infrastructure. Among these attacks, routing attacks have received considerable attention since it could cause the most devastating damage to MANET. Even though there exist several intrusion response techniques to mitigate such critical attacks, existing solutions  typically attempt to isolate malicious nodes based on binary or nai¨ve fuzzy response decisions.

However, binary responses may result in the unexpected network partition, causing additional damages to the network infrastructure, and nai¨ve fuzzy responses could lead to uncertainty in countering routing attacks in MANET. In this paper, we propose a risk-aware response mechanism to systematically cope with the identified routing attacks. Our risk-aware approach is based on an extended Dempster-Shafer mathematical theory of evidence introducing a notion of importance factors. In addition, our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with the consideration of several performance metrics.

32. An Efficient Caching Scheme and Consistency Maintenance in Hybrid P2P System.
Project Code : JN1632                         Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Peer-to-peer overlay networks are widely used in distributed systems. P2P networks can be divided into two categories: structured peer-to-peer networks in which peers are connected by a regular topology, and unstructured peer-to-peer networks in which the topology is arbitrary. The objective of this work is to design a hybrid peer-to-peer system for distributed data sharing which combines the advantages of both types of Peer-to-peer networks and minimizes their disadvantages. Consistency maintenance is propagating the updates from a primary file to its replica. Adaptive consistency maintenance algorithm (ACMA) maintains that periodically polls the file owner to update the file due to minimum number of replicas consistency overhead is very low. Top Caching (TC) algorithm helps to boost the system performance and to build a fully distributed cache for most popular information. Our caching scheme can deliver lower query delay, better load balance and higher cache hit ratios. It effectively relieves the over-caching problems for the most popular objects.

33. DoubleGuard: Detecting Intrusions in Multitier Web Applications.
Project Code : JN1633                           Year : 2016 (IEEE)


Internet services and applications have become an inextricable part of daily life, enabling communication and the management of personal information from anywhere. To accommodate this increase in application and data complexity, web services have moved to a multitier design wherein the web server runs the application front-end logic and data are outsourced to a database or file server. In this paper, we present Double Guard, an IDS system that models the network behavior of user sessions across both the front-end web server and the back-end database. By monitoring both web and subsequent database requests, we are able to ferret out attacks that independent IDS would not be able to identify. Furthermore, we quantify the limitations of any multitier IDS in terms of training sessions and functionality coverage. We implemented Double Guard using an Apache web server with MySQL and lightweight virtualization. We then collected and processed real-world traffic over a 15-day period of system deployment in both dynamic and static web applications. Finally, using DoubleGuard, we were able to expose a wide range of attacks with 100 percent accuracy while maintaining 0 percent false positives for static web services and 0.6 percent false positives for dynamic web services.

34. Insights on Media Streaming Progress Using BitTorrent-Like Protocols for On-Demand Streaming.
Project Code : JN1634                  Year : 2016 (IEEE)

—Streaming media is video or audio content sent in compressed form over the Internet and played immediately, rather than being saved to the hard drive .With streaming media, a user does not have to wait to download a file to play it. Because the media is sent in a continuous stream of data it can play as it arrives. Users can pause, rewind or fast-forward, just as they could with a downloaded file, unless the content is being streamed live.
—Our models provide insight into system behaviour and help explain the sluggishness of the system with In-Order streaming.

—We use the models to compare different retrieval policies across a wide range of system parameters, including peer arrival rate, upload/download bandwidth, and seed residence time.

—We also provide quantitative results on the startup delays and retrieval times for streaming media delivery. Our results provide insights into the design tradeoffs for on-demand media streaming in peer-to-peer networks.

—Finally, the models are validated using simulations.

35. Energy-Efficient Cooperative Videodistribution With Statistical Qosprovisions Over Wireless Networks.
Project Code : JN1635                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)


For real-time video broadcast where multiple users are interested in the same content, mobile-to-mobile cooperation can be utilized to improve delivery efficiency and reduce network utilization. Under such cooperation, however, real-time video transmission requires end-to-end delay bounds. Due to the inherently stochastic nature of wireless fading channels, deterministic delay bounds are prohibitively difficult to guarantee. For a scalable video structure, an alternative is to provide statistical guarantees using the concept of effective capacity/bandwidth by deriving quality of service exponents for each video layer. Using this concept, we formulate the resource allocation problem for general multi-hop multicast network flows and derive the optimal solution that minimizes the total energy consumption while guaranteeing a statistical end-to-end delay bound on each network path. A method is described to compute the optimal resource allocation at each node in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, we propose low complexity approximation algorithms for energy-efficient flow selection from the set of directed acyclic graphs forming the candidate network flows. The flow selection and resource allocation process is adapted for each video frame according to the channel conditions on the network links. Considering different network topologies, results demonstrate that the proposed resource allocation and flow selection algorithms provide notable performance gains with small optimality gaps at a low computational cost.

36. Detecting and Resolving Firewall Policy Anomalies.
Project Code : JN1636                     Year : 2016 (IEEE)


The advent of emerging computing technologies such as service-oriented architecture and cloud computing has enabled us to perform business services more efficiently and effectively. However, we still suffer from unintended security leakages by unauthorized actions in business services. Firewalls are the most widely deployed security mechanism to ensure the security of private networks in most businesses and institutions. The effectiveness of security protection provided by a firewall mainly depends on the quality of policy configured in the firewall. Unfortunately, designing and managing firewall policies are often error prone due to the complex nature of firewall configurations as well as the lack of systematic analysis mechanisms and tools. In this paper, we represent an innovative policy anomaly management framework for firewalls, adopting a rule-based segmentation technique to identify policy anomalies and derive effective anomaly resolutions. In particular, we articulate a grid-based representation technique, providing an intuitive cognitive sense about policy anomaly. We also discuss a proof-of- concept implementation of a visualization-based firewall policy analysis tool called Firewall Anomaly Management Environment (FAME). In addition, we demonstrate how efficiently our approach can discover and resolve anomalies in firewall policies through rigorous experiments.

37. attacks Draining life from wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.
Project Code : JN1637                  Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Ad hoc low-power wireless networks are an exciting research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of communication at the routing or medium access control levels. This paper explores resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer, which permanently disable networks by quickly draining nodes’ battery power. These “Vampire” attacks are not specific to any specific protocol, but rather rely on the properties of many popular classes of routing protocols. We find that all examined protocols are susceptible to Vampire attacks, which are devastating, difficult to detect, and are easy to carry out using as few as one malicious insider sending only protocol-compliant messages. In the worst case, a single Vampire can increase network-wide energy usage by a factor of O (N), where N in the number of network nodes. We discuss methods to mitigate these types of attacks, including a new proof-of-concept protocol that provably bounds the damage caused by Vampires during the packet forwarding phase.

38. Instance Notification from patient to doctor throw Xmpp Protocol.
Project Code : JN1638                          Year : 2016 (IEEE)


There is a need of continuous monitoring of vitalparameters of patient at critical

situation. The current scenario in hospital has a digital display for such parameters

which is observed by nurse. For such monitoring a dedicated person(nurse) is required. But looking at the growing population this ratio of one nurse per patient would be aconsiderable probable in future. So manually monitoring the patient should be replaced by some other method. Online monitoring has attracted considerable attraction for many years. It includes the applications which are not only limited up to industrial process monitoring and control but has been extended up to civilian application areas like healthcare application, home automation, traffic control etc. This paper discusses the feasibility of Instant Notification System in Heterogeneous Sensor Network with Deployment of XMPP Protocol for medical application. The system aims to provide an environment which enables medical practitioners to distantly monitor various vital parameters of patients. For academic purpose we have limited this system for use of monitoring patients’ body temperature and blood pressure. The proposed system collects data from various heterogeneous sensor networks – for example: patients’ body temperature, and blood pressure - converts it to a standard packet and provides the facility to send it over a network using Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)- (in more common terms Instant Messaging (IM)). Use of heterogeneous sensor networks (HSN) provides the much required platform independence, while XMPP enables the instant notification

39. Detecting Malicious Node In Wireless Ad-hoc Network.
Project Code : JN1639                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract This work provides a solution to identify malicious nodes in wireless sensor networks through detection of malicious message transmissions in a network. A message transmission is considered suspicious if its signal strength is incompatible with its originator’s geographical position. We provide protocols for detecting suspicious transmissions – and the consequent identification of malicious nodes – and for disseminating this information in the network. We evaluate the detection rate and the efficiency of our solution along a number of parameters.

40. Visual cryptography for biometric privacy.
Project Code : JN1640                      Year : 2016 (IEEE)

Abstract— In this era due to unbelievable development in internet, various online attacks has been increased. From all such attacks most popular attack is phishing. This attacks are done for extracting confidential information such as banking information, passwords from unsuspecting victims for fraud purposes. Confidential data can’t be directly uploaded on website since it is risky. Here in this paper data is encrypted in video and visual cryptography for login purpose in our online database system for providing more security .

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